## Posts

### Flyby anomaly by light of superluminal

Abstract  The observer contracts isotropically due to the rotation of the earth, and experiences superluminal light propagation (fly-by anomaly). What is the Flyby Anomaly? The flyby anomaly is a discrepancy between current scientific models and the actual increase in speed (i.e. increase in kinetic energy) observed during a planetary flyby (usually of Earth) by a spacecraft. In multiple cases, spacecraft have been observed to gain greater speed than scientists had predicted, but thus far no convincing explanation has been found. This anomaly has been observed as shifts in the S-band and X-band Doppler and ranging telemetry. The largest discrepancy noticed during a flyby has been 13 mm/s.[1] Possible explanations There have been a number of proposed explanations of the flyby anomaly, including: ・It has been postulated that the Flyby Anomaly is a consequence of the assumption that the speed of light is isotropic in all frames, and invariant in the method used to measure the velocity of

### Correct formulation of wave-particle duality

Here, I explain the  formulation (w＝f λ＝h f／[m C]) of wave-particle duality using the quantum hypothesis (E＝h f) and the equivalence principle of light's momentum   (p＝h f／C＝M C＝m w). w: wave speed, f: frequency, λ: wavelength, h: Planck's constant, p: light's momentum, m: inertial mass, C: speed of light, E: energy, M: Gravitational mass. File:Photoelectric effect in a solid - schematic diagram.svg - Wikimedia Commons commons.wikimedia.org What is de Broglie's matter wave? In 1924, de Broglie , in his dissertation "Studies in Quantum Theory", presented a hypothesis of matter waves based on relativistic considerations. He postulated that a mass of energy with a rest mass m₀ has internal oscillations of the frequency ν₀ determined by the formula hν₀ = m₀c², and a moving body of momentum p has a hypothetical incidental wave determined by the formula h/ν = p. The  wave rays is in the direction of the orbit of the moving body, and its group velocity is equal to

### Recession Relativity

Abstract  Galileo made relativity between objects a principle. On the other hand, Einstein proposed the principle of invariance between a viewpoint and an object by light. Classical mechanics remains ambiguous as to what the observer is relativing.  ± Relative motion velocity = Object velocity - Observer velocity. Absolute time ➔ Relative time. ± Relative motion velocity² = Relative wave speed² - c² .  In absolute time, relative motion is derived from the motion between objects, but in relative time it is derived from the speed of light and relative waves.  This article proposes a Easy and Exact relativity in Everything that removes the "strange contradictions" that Einstein says have lurked in theoretical physics from the beginning. Introduction  Einstein uses spherical waves to explain the principle of invariant speed of light.   The equations of the Lorentz transformation may be more simply deduced directly from the condition that in virtue of those equations the relation

### Exact solution of the perihelion motion of Mercury from Newtonian mechanics

ABSTRACT. The 43 arcsec/100-year error of Mercury's perihelion movement can be precisely solved from Newton's force balance equation. The centrifugal force and universal gravitational balance equation is GM ☉ m G ／r²＝m I  v²／r. The approximate solution of "absolute rest reference frame + Newtonian mechanics" is v²＝GM ☉ ／r. The exact solution of "light's observational reference frame + Newtonian mechanics" is v²= GM ☉ ／(γ r). By  Mpfiz  -  Own work , Public Domain,  Link   MATERIALS AND METHODS. From the balance formula of centrifugal force and universal gravitational force, GM ☉  m G ／r²＝ m I   v²／r　　(1). In the Post-Newton approximation, In other words, when viewed from the coordinate system, the gravity balances the inertial force, and it appears that the gravity has disappeared. It means that gravity and acceleration can be canceled out in a small area. However, in order for Eq. (1) to hold, the gravitational mass m G and the inertial mass m I mu